Minggu, 24 April 2016

Raja Ampat

Raja Ampat

Located off the northwest tip of Bird's Head Peninsula on the island of New Guinea, in Indonesia's West Papua provinceRaja Ampat, or the Four Kings, is an archipelago comprising over 1,500 small islands, cays, and shoals surrounding the four main islands of MisoolSalawatiBatanta, and Waigeo, and the smaller island of Kofiau. The Raja Ampat archipelago is the part of Coral Trianglewhich contains the richest marine biodiversity on earth.
Raja Ampat Regency is a new regency which separated from Sorong Regency in 2004.[1] The population of the Regency was recently (January 2014) put at 49, 048. It encompasses more than 40,000 km² of land and sea, which also contains Cenderawasih Bay, the largest marine national park in Indonesia. It is a part of the newly named West Papua province of Indonesia which was formerly Irian Jaya. Some of the islands are the most northern pieces of land in the Australian continent.
Raja Ampat is considered the global epicenter of tropical marine bio-diversity and is referred to as The Crown Jewel of the Bird's Head Seascape, which also includes Cenderawasih Bay and Triton Bay.




The name of Raja Ampat comes from local mythology that tells about a woman who finds seven eggs. Four of the seven eggs hatch and become kings that occupy four of Raja Ampat biggest islands whilst the other three become a ghost, a woman, and a stone.
History shows that Raja Ampat was once a part of Sultanate of Tidore, an influential kingdom from Maluku. Yet, after the Dutch invaded Maluku, it was shortly claimed by the Netherlands.
The first recorded sighting and landing by Europeans of the Ampat Islands was in the person of the Portuguese navigator Jorge de Menezes and his crew in 1526, on route from Biak, the Bird's Head Peninsula, and Waigeo, to Halmahera (Ternate).
The English explorer William Dampier gave his name to Dampier Strait, which separates Batanta island from Waigeo island. To the east, there is a strait that separates Batanta from Salawati. In 1759 Captain William Wilson sailing in the East Indiaman Pitt navigated these waters and named one strait Pitt strait, after his vessel; this was probably the channel between Batanta and Salawati.


The oceanic natural resources around Raja Ampat give it significant potential as a tourist area. Many sources place Raja Ampat as one of their top ten most popular places for diving whilst it retains the number one ranking in terms of underwater biodiversity.
According to Conservation International, marine surveys suggest that the marine life diversity in the Raja Ampat area is the highest recorded on Earth.[3] Diversity is considerably greater than any other area sampled in the Coral Triangle composed of Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, and East Timor. The Coral Triangle is the heart of the world's coral reef biodiversity, making Raja Ampat quite possibly the richest coral reef ecosystems in the world.
The area's massive coral colonies along with relatively high sea surface temperatures, also suggest that its reefs may be relatively resistant to threats like coral bleaching and coral disease, which now jeopardize the survival of other coral ecosystems around the world. The Raja Ampat islands are remote and relatively undisturbed by humans.
The high marine diversity in Raja Ampat is strongly influenced by its position between the Indian and Pacific Oceans, as coral and fish larvae are more easily shared between the two oceans. Raja Ampat's coral diversity, resilience, and role as a source for larval dispersal make it a global priority for marine protection.
1,508 fish species, 537 coral species (a remarkable 96% of all scleractinia recorded from Indonesia are likely to occur in these islands and 75% of all species that exist in the world[4]), and 699 mollusk species, the variety of marine life is staggering.[5] Some areas boast enormous schools of fish and regular sightings of sharks, such as wobbegongs.
Raja Ampat Islands have at least three ponds containt unpoisoned jellyfish, all in Misool area.[6]
Although accessing the islands is not that difficult, it takes some time. It takes six hours flight from Jakarta, the capital city of Indonesia to Sorong. Then, taking a boat to reach the islands is necessary.






Better Education For A Better Future



Better Education For A Better Future

Education is in fact the key to Greece’s future prosperity. As difficult as the current economic crisis is, it is important not to lose focus on the importance of education and to start addressing some of the problems that have long plagued the nation’s education system.

With the recent agreement with EU leaders, Greece has gained some time to implement its reform program. A lot has been done already. Reforms carried out over the past year are impressive and need to be properly appreciated by the public at home and abroad. And the results are starting to show up.  Greece can succeed and exit from this crisis stronger. But there is a long and hard road ahead. And success will depend on continued reforms and thorough implementation.

This is true, crucially, about education reforms. Here the government has set forth an ambitious agenda for change, in line with the best practices across OECD countries. I would like to commend the Government for such bold but necessary set of reforms despite the pushback from entrenched interests. I know how difficult it is to move forward with reforms which are indispensible to modernise a country and to improve the lives of people. My own country, Mexico, is a good example of such difficulties.

The OECD is here to help Greece. We are the leading international institution in the different stages and challenges of education policy: from early child care, with our famous “Starting Strong” report, to our flagship Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA); our reviews of Vocational Education and Training systems (VET); our Teaching and Learning International Survey (TALIS); our Assessment of Higher Education Learning Outcomes (AHELO); our Centre for Educational Research and Innovation (CERI); our latest Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC), etc. We are proud to put this wealth of expertise at Greece’s disposal and to continue working with and for Greece in the construction of a better education system.

Our report outlines short-, medium- and long-term actions that Greece can take to establish solid foundations for the future development of its education system. Several of these are already being pursued as part of the Government’s reform agenda. But more has to be done.

One of the most urgent actions is the need to dismantle the highly centralised controls that undermine efforts to modernise the education system. This excessive centralisation will itself impinge on the chances of success of other education reforms.

Thus, we recommend establishing, within the Education Ministry, a unit to guide and oversee step-by-step implementation of policies. The central structures currently devoted to input controls could be downsized, in line with the modern public management systems in place in many OECD countries. The creation of a comprehensive data base would also be instrumental to support planning, to monitor quality improvement, and to improve management throughout the education system. This is an indispensible tool which has already been implemented with success in many places, such as the Flemish Community of Belgium, and which we can help adopt in Greece.

Besides the need to decentralise functions, our report addresses other challenges faced by both the school sector and the tertiary education sector.
At the school level, the report addresses four main challenges and identifies short-term priority actions.
The first challenge is to improve governance and management. School directors need to be given enough legitimacy and authority to actually lead their schools. They also need to focus their professional development on building skills in personnel management. Meanwhile, disadvantaged schools need greater resources to recruit effective teachers. Indeed, we have recently studied the situation in 15 countries and came to the conclusion that school autonomy, accountability and strong school leadership are indispensible if countries are to raise learning outcomes.

We also suggest that Greece should make the professional development of school directors and of directors of newly-formed school clusters a central priority, and to complement the current centrally-led approach to professional development with more local, decentralised initiatives based on school needs.

The second challenge concerns the rationalisation of the school network, which is currently, and rightly, a central priority for the Ministry of Education. We believe that this rationalisation should continue. Moreover, the task of school mapping and rationalisation should be assigned to each of the 13 regional directors as an on-going core planning responsibility. In this way, a differentiated region-by-region strategy can be developed and pursued. This will allow a better adaption to different geographic and demographic conditions.

The third challenge is about the development and use of human resources. Here the experiences of other successful countries are particularly useful. The net teaching time in Greece in lower secondary education was 429 hours in 2008, compared to the OECD average of 599, and the EU19 average of 566. This gap persists even after adjusting to account for a shorter school year as required by Greece’s climate. This shows that there is clearly a need for Greece to increase teachers’ workloads.

We also suggest focusing on increasing the workload of the most experienced teachers. At 16 hours per week in secondary education, it is substantially lower than the 21 hours of start-of-career teachers. Greece is one of the very few countries in Europe where teaching hours for start-of-career and end-of-career teachers are not similar.

Last but not least, evaluation and assessment remain a critical challenge. The report argues for an acceleration of current initiatives on school self-evaluation. The goal would be to design and implement a comprehensive system based on results and outcomes, rather than on inputs and procedures. We believe this will bring quick positive results, as demonstrated by the experience of several OECD countries. We also see the need for Greece to urgently initiate, design and develop a comprehensive system to assess learning outcomes. This system would have to be aligned with curriculum objectives and can be used at multiple levels of the system, such as individual students, classrooms, schools regions and the education system as a whol

Selasa, 06 Oktober 2015

My New Friend


My New Friend

I have a new friend. His name is Christoforus Marchiavelly Nugroho. His address at permata cimahi 2 blok 05 no 8. His birthday is Bandung 6 june 2000. His hobbies is doing sport and plaing music instrumental like guitar and piano. His favorite food is meatballs and beefsteak. He doesn't have siblings. His favorite subject is physic and english. He wish to be a mining expert or architek. Inspiring person for him is Patrick Pouyanne ( CEO Total Mining ).He is very freindly and nice. He is my first new friend in this class.